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The Effectiveness of Feedback on Energy Consumption: A Review of the Literature on Metering, Billing and Direct Displays

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Darby, S.


Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK, p.1-21 (2006)



Most domestic energy use, most of the time, is invisible to the user. Most people have only a vague idea of how much energy they are using for different purposes and what sort of difference they could make by changing day-to-day behaviour or investing in efficiency measures. Hence the importance of feedback in making energy more visible and more amenable to understanding and control. Defra commissioned a review, which was undertaken by the Environmental Change Institute at Oxford University, to consider what is known about the effectiveness of feedback to householders. The focus of the review was on how people change their behaviour, not on the detail of the technology used.