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Carrie Armel

Carrie Armel

Carrie Armel

Department Affiliation: 
Research Associate, Precourt Energy Efficiency Center

Area of Work

Behavior & Energy


  • Served as Project Director for the campus-wide Stanford Energy Behavior Initiative, which was funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency for Energy (ARPA-E) and California Energy Commission (CEC). This Initiative focused on how we can leverage sensor data, like that from smart meters, in combination with behavioral approaches to maximize energy savings.
  • Develops climate-positive behavior change interventions, and supporting materials/software applications. To date these have included community based (e.g., high school and Girl Scouts) and online programs. is the most recent. These combine approaches from numerous fields spanning behavioral economics, marketing, psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and others.

  • Develops tools for measuring energy behaviors, to evaluate the efficacy of interventions and also provide feedback to users. These tools include surveys; lab measurement of observed behavior; sensors (such as smart meters); disaggregation of sensor data; online click data measuring website usage, intention to buy, and social media use; psychological tests (e.g., reaction time); and psychophysiological measures such as facial electromyography (EMG), skin conductance response (SCR), and eye-tracking.

  • Develops additional resources, such as a "Behavior and Energy" literature database, and Residential Building Energy Actions Database; Reference Energy Disaggregation Dataset (REDD) dataset, protocol, and policy recommendations; and Energy Services Platform for implementing online behavioral programs.

  • Co-developed the "Behavior, Energy, and Climate Change (BECC) Conference". Organized several topical workshops.

  • Currently exploring radical technical, governance, and individual solutions for improving resilience in the face of climate impacts and other emerging challenges.

Selected Publications