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Carrie Armel Photo

Carrie Armel

Centers & Institutes:
Research Associate, Precourt Energy Efficiency Center

Area of Work:
Behavior & Energy

Current Research:

  • » Serving as Project Director for the Stanford Energy Behavior Initiative, which is funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency for Energy (ARPA-E). This Initiative focuses on how we can leverage sensor data, like that from smart meters, in combination with behavioral approaches to maximize energy savings.
  • » Preparing an integrative review that identifies the most effective behavior change techniques from multiple disciplines so that they may be translated and applied to addressing climate change.
  • » Developing climate-positive behavior change interventions.
  • » Developing tools for measuring climate change relevant behaviors, for use in evaluating the efficacy of behavior change interventions, and in providing feedback to individuals.
  • » Developing a "Behavior and Energy" website and literature database, which serves as a central repository for research on climate relevant behavior, and also serves as the official website for the Behavior, Energy, and Climate Change conferences.


Curriculum Vitae (pdf)


PEEC Funded Projects

Behavior and Decision-Making Research Related to Energy Efficiency and Climate Change

Creating More Sustainable Decisions and Behaviors through New Processes and Focused Interventions

Summer Energy Feedback Infrastructure Project

Increasing Energy Efficiency Behaviors among Adolescents

Serious Games and Energy Use Behavior

Presentations & Research

Energy Efficient Behavior
Authors Title
Hilary Boudet
June Flora
Carrie Armel
Clustering household energy-saving behaviours by behavioural attribute (free access, link valid until May 12, 2016), Energy Policy, , pp 444-454. DOI information: 10.1016/j.enpol.2016.02.033
Marilyn Cornelius
Carrie Armel
Kathryn Hoffman
Lindsay Allen
Susan W. Bryson
Manisha Desai
Thomas N. Robinson
Increasing energy- and greenhouse gas-saving behaviors among adolescents: a school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial
Published, Energy Efficiency, , Volume 7, pp 217-242.

Without journal access, you may download the paper here: Increasing Energy and Greenhouse Gas-Saving Behaviors Among Adolescents: A School-Based Randomized Controlled Trial (454KB PDF) Published 2012.

Working Paper Tables & Figures Published 2012.

Supplemental Materials: High School Energy Curriculum We designed, implemented and experimentally evaluated a theory-based, school based, energy and behavior change curriculum for high school.
Hilary Boudet
Tom Robinson
June A Flora
Nicole Ardin
Carrie Armel
Girl Scout Curriculum, Health Improvement Website
Girls Learning Environment and Energy (GLEE) is a behavior change program developed by energy and environmental experts, environmental educators, and child and family behavior change researchers at Stanford University.

Energy behaviours of Northern California Girl Scouts and their families
Energy Policy
Boudet, H. S., Ardoin, N. M., Flora, J., Armel, K. C., Desai, M., Robinson, T. N. (June 2014)

Dylan Sullivan
Carrie Armel
Annika Todd
When "Not Losing" is Better Than "Winning:" Using Behavioral Science to Drive Customer Investment in Energy Efficiency, (131KB PDF), ACEEE Summer Study 2012.

Data Jam Workshop
November 11, 2013
Stanford, CA

The 11/11/13 workshop aimed to help participants develop innovative energy saving program ideas, using some of the framework laid out in the above paper.

Carrie Armel Stanford's ARPA-E Sensor & Behavior Initiative (PDF) Presented in multiple venues 2011 & 2012.
Carrie Armel
Abhay Gupta
Gireesh Shrimali
Adrian Albert
Is Disaggregation The Holy Grail of Energy Efficiency?: The Case of Electricity Published, Energy Policy 2012.

Without journal access, you may download the paper here: Technical Paper (0.9MB PDF)

Video Connectivity Week, Santa Clara, CA, May 22-24, 2012
Slide Set (0.9MB PDF)
This paper describes how disaggregation can address two timely energy problems - achieving significant low-cost energy reductions in the residential and commercial sectors, and achieving the energy saving potential of the smart grid.
Mariyln Cornelius
Thomas N. Robinson
Global Identity and Sustainability Manuscript (221KB PDF) Submitted 2012.
Global Identity Table (9KB PDF)
We tested the reliability, validity, and usefulness of a global identity construct with regard to sustainability related attitudes and behaviors.
Sebastien Houde
Annika Todd
Anant Sudarshan
June A. Flora
Carrie Armel
Real-time Feedback and Electricity Consumption (446KB PDF) Published, Energy Journal 2012.
Carrie Armel
Katy Yan
Annika Todd
Thomas N Robinson
The Stanford Climate Change Behavior Survey (SCCBS): assessing greenhouse gas emissions-related behaviors in individuals and populations (318.9KB PDF) (2011). Climatic Change, 109(3), 671-694.

Stanford Climate Change and Behavior Survey (pdf)
Carrie Armel
Thomas N Robinson
Tools for Measuring Individuals' Climate Behaviors and Greenhouse Gas Impact (73KB PDF) (2008). Environmental Law Review, 38, 10847-10850.
Carrie Armel
Behavior, Energy and Climate Change: A Solutions-Oriented Approach (0.9MB PDF) Feature presentation at the February 27, 2008 session of Stanford University's Energy Forum.

Presentation at the Stanford School of Medicine on May 29, 2008.

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