November 7 - 9, 2007   |   Sacramento, CA

About BECC 2007

The Behavior, Energy & Climate Change (BECC) conference, convened by the Precourt Energy Efficiency Center at Stanford University, the California Institute for Energy and Environment at the University of California, and the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, was the first national conference focused on understanding the behavior and decision-making of individuals and organizations and using that knowledge to help accelerate our transition to an energy-efficient and low-carbon economy. Please visit the ACEEE website about the BECC conference for additional details.

Conference Schedule w/ Downloadable Presentations
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Behavior & Innovation

Conference Kick-off and Networking Reception

  • Linda Schuck, BECC Conference Chair, California Institute for Energy and Environment
  • Sharyn Barata, Vice-President, Opinion Dynamics Corporation
  • Rick Diamond, Senior Advisor, California Institute for Energy and Environment
  • Andy Hargadon, Director, Center for Entrepreneurship University of California, Davis


Behavior, Energy & Climate Change

Opening Plenary

    Welcome (1MB)
  • Linda Schuck, BECC Conference Chair
  • Carl Blumstein, Director, California Institute for Energy and Environment (CIEE), University of California
  • Steve Nadel, Executive Director, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE)
  • Jim Sweeney, Director, Precourt Energy Efficiency Center (PEEC), Stanford University

Setting the Stage: Why Behavior is Important (11MB)
Setting the Stage: Why Behavior is Important (Presentation Summary) (1MB)
Loren Lutzenhiser
, Conference Co-Chair and Professor, Portland State University

Thinking about Our Impacts: Offsetting BECC's Climate Footprint (1MB)
Rick Diamond
, Senior Advisor, California Institute for Energy and Environment
Gail Slocum, Pacific Gas & Electric Company's ClimateSmart Program

Anticipating the Future: Technologies, Cultures and Cheeseburgers (6MB)
Jamais Cascio
, Institute for the Future; Fellow, Institute for Ethics & Emerging Technologies; Founder, WorldChanging.Com


Topic 1A: Improving Assumptions, Theories & Models

Moderator: Skip Laitner, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy

How Behavior Matters for Policy Options: The Impact of Preferences, Behavior and Changing Elasticities (1MB)
Skip Laitner
, Senior Economist for Technology Policy, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy

Modeling Behavioral Change: The Evolution of Consumer and Producer Behavior
Marvin Horowitz
, President, Demand Research

Economic and Non-Economic Approaches to Behavior: Insights for Energy Models (1MB)
Charlie Wilson
, Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability, University of British Columbia, Vancouver


Topic 1B: Individual Behavior In A Social Context: The Impact Of Norms & Networks

Moderator: Chris Nichols, Academy for Educational Development

The Secret to Using Social Norms to Reduce Household Energy Consumption (1MB)
Robert Cialdini
, W.P. Carey Distinguished Professor of Marketing and Regents' Professor of Psychology, Arizona State University

Relationships Matter: Using Social Network Analysis to Understand and Change Social Norms (2MB)
Chris Nichols
, Senior Marketing Manager, Academy for Educational Development, Center for Social Marketing and Behavior Change

The Bulb is the Catalyst: Accessible Actions Stimulate Networks for Change
Stuart Hickox
, Executive Director, Project Porch Light, One Change


Topic 1C: Information, Education & Voluntary Action

Moderator: Karen Ehrhardt-Martinez, Conference Co-Chair, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy

Changing Behavior in Households and Communities through Education and Information: Critical Insights (1MB)
Paul Stern
, Director, Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change, National Research Council

Media, Messages, and Messengers: Insights into Effective Communications and Behavior Change (4MB)
Renee Bator
, Associate Professor, Psychology, State University of New York, Plattsburgh

Leveraging Social Networks to Motivate Voluntary Change in Energy Use (2MB)
Jennifer Mankoff
, and Susan R. Fussell, Human-Computer Interaction Institute, Carnegie Mellon University

Approaches and Effectiveness of Energy and Carbon Labels (2MB)
Jennifer Thorne Amann
, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy


Topic 2A: Behavior As A Reliable Resource For Energy Efficiency & Emissions Reductions

Moderator: Loren Lutzenhiser, Conference Co-Chair, Portland State University

How Conventional Policy Approaches Produce a Distorted Picture of Behavior
Loren Lutzenhiser
, Professor of Urban Studies and Planning, Portland State University

Using Behavior Research at BC Hydro (1MB)
Ken Tiedemann
, Power Smart, British Columbia Hydro

Utility Perspectives on Behavior, Program Design and Regulatory Requirements in California
Gene Rodrigues
, Director of Energy Efficiency, Southern California Edison

Regulatory Concerns and Opportunities Related to Behavior, Efficiency Acquisition and Climate Change
Jeanne Clinton
, Clean Energy Advisor, California Public Utility Commission


Topic 2B: People Are Different: Understanding Opinions, Attitudes & Segments

Moderator: Sylvia Bender, California Energy Commission

What Americans Think and Do About Climate Change: Insights from a Psychological Perspective
Jon Krosnick
, Frederic O. Glover Professor in Humanities and Social Sciences, Stanford University

About Next 10
Noel Perry
, President, NextTen
Results: Next 10/Field Global Warming Survey of Californians: Perceptions of Costs & Opportunities (1MB)
Mark DiCamillo
, Senior Vice President, Field Research Corporation

People Really ARE Different: Leveraging Segmentation to Accelerate Climate Action (1MB)
Bill Guns
, President and CEO, SRI Consulting Business Intelligence


Topic 2C: Building On Experience: What We Can Learn From Entertainment & Other Fields

Moderator: Carrie Armel, Conference Co-Chair, Precourt Energy Efficiency Center

The Use of Serial Dramas to Change Behavior Around the World (4MB)
William Ryerson
, President, Population Media Center

Assessing the Public Impact: The Day After Tomorrow, An Inconvenient Truth, and LiveEarth
Anthony Leiserowitz
, Director, Yale Project on Climate Change, Yale University

Applying Health Promotion Intervention Principles to Climate Change (1MB)
Carrie Armel
, Precourt Energy Efficiency Center and Stanford Medical School Prevention Research Center


Topic 3A: Science, Policy Design & Political Leadership

Moderator: James Goldstene, Executive Officer, California Air Resources Board


Topic 3B: Motivating Individuals To Action: Success Stories

Moderator: Sharyn Barata, Vice-President, Opinion Dynamics Corporation

Behind the Curtain – How to Get the Vote
Ernie Paicopolos
, Principal, Opinion Dynamics Corporation

The How, When and Why's of Effective Social Marketing Campaigns (2MB)
Richard Earle
, Author of "The Art of Cause Marketing"

Energy Star -- Moving from Awareness to Action
Maria Tikoff Vargas
, Brand Manager for ENERGY STAR, US Environmental Protection Agency


Topic 3C: Mobilizing Action In Communities & Groups

Moderator: Merrilee Harrigan, Vice-President for Education, Alliance to Save Energy

Community-Based Social Marketing: Research and Tools for Changing Energy-Use Behavior (4MB)
Edward Maibach
, Professor and Director, Center of Excellence in Climate Change Communication Research, George Mason University

Students as Change Agents: Universities at the Forefront of Climate Activism
Crystal Durham
, Executive Director, California Student Sustainability Coalition

Walking the Talk: The Role of Communities of Faith in Making Radical (or not) Changes in Lifestyle
Rev. Dexter McNamara
, Executive Director, Interfaith Service Bureau


Demonstration of Stanford's New Bibliographic Database on BECC Topics


Reception & Poster Session

  • Ed Vine and Karen Sharp, California Institute for Energy and Environment


Informal Discussion: Quantifying Behavior And Its Impact

Moderator: Carrie Armel, Conference Co-Chair, Precourt Energy Efficiency Center

Targeting Behaviors by CO2 Footprint and Malleability
Jonathan Gilligan
, Senior Lecturer, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Vanderbilt University

Common Energy Efficiency Program Evaluation Approaches
Jane Peters
, President, Research Into Action

Technological Advances in Measuring Behavior and Providing Feedback
Peter Sharer
, CEO, Agilewaves Inc.

Lessons From Health Communication Campaigns
June Flora
, Lucille Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford University


Influencing Climate Behavior

Keynote Plenary

Cathy Zoi, Founding CEO, Alliance for Climate Protection


Topic 4A: Accelerating Technology Solutions

Moderator: Martha Krebs, California Energy Commission

Human-Centered Technology Innovation (2MB)
Craig Lawrence
, Practice Lead, Consumer Experience Design, IDEO

Involving Stakeholders from Conception to Adoption: Demand Response Case Study (2MB)
Paul Wright
, A. Martin Berlin Chair in Mechanical Engineering, UC Berkeley

Accelerating Technological Change: Getting Consumers to Pay Attention to Fuel Economy (1MB)
Tom Turrentine
, Research Anthropologist and Director, Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center, UC Davis


Topic 4B: Leveraging Past Lessons For Current Action

Moderator: Jane Peters, Research Into Action

Lessons from 30 Years of Energy Efficiency Program Implementation (1MB)
White Paper: Lessons Learned After 30 Years of Process Evaluation (1MB)
Jane Peters
, President, Research Into Action

Closing the Loop between Evaluators and Implementers; Innovation and Experimental Design (1MB)
Ed Vine
, Research Coordinator, California Institute for Energy and Environment

  • Valerie Richardson, Director, Consumer Energy Efficiency, Pacific Gas & Electric Company
  • Beth Sachs, Executive Director, Vermont Energy Investment Corporation


Topic 4C: What Motivates Businesses To Change

Moderator: Steve Schiller, California Institute for Energy and Environment and California Climate Action Registry

  • Joel Levin, Vice President, Business Development, California Climate Action Registry
  • George Waidelich, VP Energy Operations, Safeway Inc.
  • David Raney, Senior Manager, Environmental and Energy Affairs, Honda
  • Gene Rodrigues, Director, Energy Efficiency Division, Southern California Edison


Behavior & Policy: Future Directions

Closing Plenary
Moderator: Ralph Cavanagh, Natural Resources Defense Council

  • Jackalyne Pfannenstiel, Chair and Commissioner, California Energy Commission
  • Rep. Brian Baird, Chair, US House Science Subcommittee on Research and Science Education
  • Dian Grueneich, Commissioner, California Public Utilities Commission
  • Ira Ruskin, CA Assemblymember, 21st Assembly District


Planning What's Next

Post-Conference Informal Session

  • Carl Blumstein, Director, California Institute for Energy and Environment
  • Rick Diamond, Senior Advisor, California Institute for Energy and Environment
  • John Weyant, Deputy Director, Precourt Energy Efficiency Center

BECC Poster Session w/ Downloadable Posters
Linked titles in the poster directory allow you to download the poster as an Adobe Acrobat PDF file. (If you don't already have it, you may need the free Adobe Acrobat Reader to view the posters.)


Barriers to Full Residential CFL Saturation: Lessons from the Field (PDF)
Daisy Allen, Kathleen Gaffney (KEMA, Inc.)

Discrepancies Between What We Say We Value Versus Our Daily Decisions
Elise L. Amel, Christina Manning, Britain Scott (University of St. Thomas)

Preferences For Change: Which Do Individuals Prefer: Voluntary Action, Soft Regulations, or Hard Regulations?
Shahzeen Attari, Mary Schoen, Cliff Davidson (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University)

Market Research for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) (PDF)
Jonn Axsen, Reid (Rusty) Heffner, Tom Turrentine, Ken Kurani, Dahlia Gara, Kevin Nesbitt (Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis)

Where Old Refrigerators Go (PDF)
Charles Bailey, John H. Reed, Moria Morrissey (Innovologie), Don Dohrmann (ADM Associates), Steve Westberg (Hiner and Associates), John Peterson (Athens Research), Shahana Samiullah (Southern California Edison)

Chula Vista: A Case Study in the Role of Municipal Government in Promoting Energy Efficiency (PDF)
Carla Blackmar, Brendan Reed (Department of Conservation and Environmental Services, City of Chula Vista, California Public Utilities Commission, San Diego Gas & Electric Company)

Assessing the Behavioral Effects of CFL Advertisements (PDF)
Jennifer Canseco (KEMA, Inc.)

Activating Norms to Change Driving Habits: An Examination of Persuasive Communication Techniques Based on the Norm Activation Model
Amanda R. Carrico, Kenneth A. Wallston, Mark A. Cohen, Michael T. Vandenbergh (Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University)

Motivating Individuals, Supporting Communities: The Minnesota Energy Challenge
Neely Crane-Smith (Center for Energy and Environment)

Rehabilitating the Willingness to Accept Measure in Contingent Valuation Research
Chris Ann Dickerson (CAD Consulting)

Using Stages of Change to Design Global Warming Communication and Policy Strategies (PDF)
Bob Doppelt (Climate Leadership Initiative, University of Oregon)

Promoting Ecological Literacy and Pro-Environmental Behavior Through Ecological Economics (PDF)
Valerie Esposito (Gund Institute for Ecological Economics)

A New Market Paradigm for Zero-Energy Homes
Barbara Farhar (University of Colorado)

Saving Energy to Save California from Climate Change: Constraints from Institutional Aspects Around Savings Attribution
Rafael Friedmann (Pacific Gas & Electric Company)

Social Research Needed by Energy Efficiency Practitioners to Save Energy and Mitigate Climate Change
Rafael Friedmann, Carol Yin (Pacific Gas & Electric Company)

StepGreen: Leveraging Online Social Networks to Motivate Behavior Change (PDF)
Susan Fussell, Jennifer Mankoff, Deanna Matthews, Michael Johnson (Human Computer Interaction Institute, Carnegie Mellon University)

The Occupant Energy Index: Valuing the Impact of Occupant Behavior on Buildings
Brian Dean, Dean Gamble, David Kaiser (ICF International)

Understanding Residential Electricity Demand Behavior in California: The Idea of "Energy Communities" (PDF)
Mark Hanson, Mark Bernstein (University of Southern California)

UC Davis Students Encourage Faculty and Staff to Recycle
Ann Savageau, Gale Okumura, Mo Hollman, Sal Genito, Katie Hetrick, Lin King, spring 2007 students of Design 127 (University of California, Davis)

The Bulb is the Catalyst: Change One Light and Mobilize the Masses
Stuart Hickox, Suzanne Fraser, Jon Bartlett (One Change)

Developing Chicago's Climate Change Action Plan (PDF)
Marjorie Isaacson (Center for Neighborhood Technology)

Calculate Your Climate Footprint From Every Dollar You Spend (PDF)
Chris Jones (Berkeley Institute of the Environment, University of California, Berkeley)

Stanford University's Energy Conservation Incentive Program (PDF)
Susan Kulakowski (Stanford University)

Facilitating Household Efficiency at Work: Employer-Based Initiatives to Save Energy (PDF)
Kathy Kuntz, Chris Schultz-Buechner, Lisa Fox (Wisconsin Energy Conservation Corporation)

Individualized Home Energy Reports to Transform Behavior and Supercharge Existing Efficiency Efforts
Robert Cialdini (Arizona State University), Scott Forman, Alex Laskey, Dan Yates (Positive Energy)

From Inventory to Action: Motivating and Leading Change Via University-Community Partnerships (PDF)
Kevin Laverty (Business Administration Program, University of Washington, Bothell), Matt Kuharic, Kaia Peterson, Amy Wheeless, & Eli Levitt (University of Washington, Seattle)

Visualizing Household Energy Use: En Route to Sustainable Energy Systems
Erica Löfström, Jenny Palm (Department of Technology and Social Change, Linköping University, Sweden)

Do Teens Care about Electricity Conservation? A Study of Attitudes and Awareness Levels of Adolescents in Ontario, Canada (PDF)
Jennifer Lynes, Jennifer Robinson (University of Waterloo), Bob Collins (Ontario Power Authority)

Adoption of Innovative Domestic Heating Systems in Sweden (PDF)
Krushna Mahapatra, Leif Gustavsson (Ecotechnology Program, Mid Sweden University, Sweden)

How to Convince Homeowners to Adopt District Heating System? (PDF)
Krushna Mahapatra, Leif Gustavsson, Gireesh Nair (Ecotechnology Program, Mid Sweden University, Sweden)

Actual and Expected Benefits of a Greener Lifestyle
Christina Manning, Elise Amel, Britain Scott (Department of Psychology, University of St. Thomas)

Is Energy Efficiency Enough? Part 1: Can CA EE Savings Explain CA's Per Capita Consumption Trend? (PDF) and Is Energy Efficiency Enough? Part 2: A Different View on CA's Electric IOUs EE Savings (PDF)
Cynthia Mitchell, Gill Court (Energy Economics, Inc.)

Green@Home - Applying Behavior Change Strategies to Residential Energy Saving
Debbie Mytels (Acterra)

An Iconic Approach to Communicating Climate Change (PDF)
Saffron O'Neill, Mike Hulme, Irene Lorenzoni, Tim Osborn (Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK)

Using Systems Theory to Identify and Measure Behavioral Outcomes (PDF)
John H. Reed (Innovologie), Gretchen Jordan (Sandia National Laboratories), Ed Vine (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)

Electricity-Use Feedback and its Effect on Consumption Behavior and Attitudes: A Case Study of Smart Metered Homes in Southwestern Ontario, Canada (PDF)
Jennifer Robinson, Ian H. Rowlands (University of Waterloo)

Dynamics in Behavioral Response to a Fuel Cell Vehicle Fleet and Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure: An Exploratory Study
Caroline Rodier, Susan A. Shaheen, Elliot Martin, Timothy E. Lipman (Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Berkeley)

DIY - Energy Cabaret: Saving Energy with a Laugh (PDF)
Peter Sattler (Sattler Energie Consulting GmbH), Kurt Krautgartner

Contentious Politics in Liquefied Natural Gas Facility Siting: A Case Study of Vallejo, California (PDF)
Hilary Schaffer (Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources, Stanford University), Leonard Ortolano (UPS Foundation Professor of Civil Engineering, Stanford University)

Profiling Early Adopters of Home Energy Management Systems
Jeremy Schembri, Ian H. Rowlands (Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario)

Get 'Em While They're Young: The Impact of K-12 Energy Education
Chris Schultz-Buechner, Kathy Kuntz, Lisa Fox (Wisconsin Energy Conservation Corporation)

Municipal Stakeholders and Climate Action Plans: A Case Study of City of Sunnyvale (PDF)
Betty Seto, Karin Corfee (KEMA, Inc.)

TOU Rates and Vulnerable Households: Electricity Consumption Behavior in a Canadian Case Study (PDF)
Sarah Ivy Simmons, Ian H. Rowlands (Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario)

Evaluating Outreach, Marketing, and Educational Efforts: Exploring the Role of Attitudes, NEBs, and Social Marketing Approaches
Lisa Skumatz (Skumatz Economic Research Associates), David J. Freeman

Non-Energy Benefits For Residential And Commercial Participants - Influencing Participation And Cost-Effectiveness By Understanding Decisionmaking And Tradeoffs
Lisa Skumatz (Skumatz Economic Research Associates), David J. Freeman

PG&E ClimateSmart Carbon Neutral Rate - Who are the Early Adopters and Marketing Beyond Them
Gail Slocum, Robert Parkhurst, Sonita Lontoh-Skarsgard, Jane Yedinak (ClimateSmart Program, Pacific Gas & Electric Company)

Social Marketing for the Environment: A Comparative Analysis of Theory and Practice (PDF)
Bruno Takahashi (College of Environmental Science & Forestry, State University of New York)

Adoption of Solar and Clean Distributed Generation Technologies: A Comparison of Motivations and Effects of Decision-Making by Public and Private Entities
Patricia Thompson, Beth Baker (Summit Blue Consulting), Nick Lenssen (Energy Insights)

Effective Employee Awareness Programs for Industry - Training the Trainers
Les Tumidaj, Mark Hamilton (Strategic Energy Group)

The Effect of Deliberative Discussion on Environmental Preferences, Using a Contemporary Energy and Environmental Issue as a Case Study (PDF)
Marsha Walton (New York State Energy Research and Development Authority)

Getting Savings in Schools and Small Government - The Game
Carrie Webber, Karen Maoz, Betty Seto (KEMA, Inc.)

Designing Environmental Information Measures of Consumption (PDF)
Hege Westskog, Steffen Kallbekken, Marianne Aasen (Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo, Norway)

What Are the Barriers to Engaging the Public with Climate Change? (PDF)
Lorraine Whitmarsh, Irene Lorenzoni, Sophie Nicholson-Cole (Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK)

Climate Facts: Assembling Conclusions about Energy, Economics, and Climate Change
Ken Zimmerman (Oregon Public Utility Commission)